As we’ve stated several times, once the machine is built up to the point of reaching resonance, it will produce a peak output of about 800 Watts, for input of about 1000 Watts. Your machine may be putting out a bit more or less, but most machines output should be close to this if the finished cores were purchased from Torelco, because the core construction will be similar. While 800W output for 1000W input is very efficient, it is not over-unity. And that’s ok, because when your machine is built up to the point of resonance and producing power, you’re not finished!
The next tuning steps are more abstract than getting the basic parametric resonance working, and can be challenging. But if you read through this carefully, think it through, and try to have the concept firmly in mind before starting, you will be successful.
(WITTS says) that on 99% of the successful replication of this machine, the core steel resonant frequency is between 300 and 600Hz. This is because different builders have used different types of steel. But once we find our core steel resonant frequency, it will be close to the same with all cores built by Torelco. Here’s how to find it:
The core steel has to be activated by tuning to its resonant frequency, and running the machine at that frequency for a period of time. This has to be done while the exciter coil is connected in the secondary circuit, tuned to 1.3MHz. These 2 resonances work together to cause the core steel itself to become electrified, producing additional output power.
The core steel resonant frequency will be the frequency where the core has the highest ‘Q’, and this will be between 300Hz and 600Hz (secondary frequency). We can probably spin the rotor up to 300Hz (4500 RPM) safely if the rotor setup is done with precision, but to run the machine at 600Hz directly would be 9,000 RPM, which would be too fast for this design. So the solution is to run on a harmonic. The ½ harmonic for 300Hz is 150Hz, and for 600Hz is 300Hz. So this is the range of frequencies that must be searched to find the core steel resonant frequency (between 150Hz (2250 RPM), and 300Hz (4500 RPM) secondary frequency). After the machine is completely tuned, the exciter coil can be removed from the circuit, and the machine can be slowed down to its normal operating speed, which should be in the neighborhood of 2,500 RPM. The WITTS machine we see in the 40kW demo video is running at 2450 RPM.
As stated above, the correct frequency will be the frequency where the core has the highest ‘Q’. This can be found using a fluorescent tube with one end touching the core steel, and the other end grounded. (please see Core Surface Voltage Test video). The highest brightness of the fluorescent tube will be the highest ‘Q’ tuning of the core. It may be difficult to see the difference in brightness between test steps without a fairly precise test set-up. The fluorescent tube could be mounted in a wood or cardboard box along with a luminance meter to accurately measure the brightness in the presence of ambient light. Harbor Freight stores in the U.S. carry a decent quality, inexpensive digital multimeter (CEN-TECH model P98674, $59.99) that has a built-in luminance meter. This could be used to monitor and compare brightness levels between test steps.
I ran through this series of tests at first using a 40kV high-voltage probe in contact with the core steel, in lieu of the fluorescent tube, just to get a relative energy indication. However, the fluorescent tube should be used for the actual testing, since the energy on the core surface is not conventional electricity, and the point of highest voltage (read with a standard kV probe) may not be the point of highest brightness of the fluorescent tube. Core surface voltage is affected by the load. Heavier loading will generate higher voltages. I used 6 X 100W/230V incandescent lamps wired in parallel for this sequence of tests, then added 3 more lamps and partially repeated the test to verify the effect of increasing the load (see attached spreadsheet “core surface voltage test.xlsx”).
It should also be noted here, that as you continue to put run time on your machine, the core steel will become activated and accumulate energy. There was no voltage on the core surface when we first built this machine and went into resonance. It has already accumulated nearly 1,800V on the core surface (with heavy loading) just from running in resonance (see attached spreadsheet).
I started looking a little below 150Hz (149.2Hz) with cap value of 200nF, and added increments of 1.5uF each time. In other words, if you add a 1.5uF/2,000V capacitor in series for each test step, the step size will be about 8nF near 150Hz, and about 4nF as you get up near 300Hz (step size is non-linear due to increase in speed for each step). I’ve been up to 4,130 RPM (275Hz) so far.
At this point the voltage on the surface of the core steel was 1,480 V and still rising, so I decided to remove the rotor and try to get the mechanical setup a bit more precise so I could sustain a higher speed if necessary. So you may need to build/modify your rotor setup for higher accuracy / higher speed. Here’s how:
Shrouds should be perfectly round with center hole dead center and snug fit over the shaft. Use self-locking nut(s) on the 2 shroud mounting bolts, and no other hardware (minimum hardware). Stagger the direction of the 2 mounting bolts (head of one bolt on opposite side of rotor from other bolt head) – please see our published QEG CAD Drawing package in the free Anniversary Edition Build Manual). Or if using threaded rod, make sure both rods are precisely the same length, and perfectly centered. Finally, get the entire rotor assembly professionally balanced by a reputable machine shop, and ask them to be very careful when removing material so as not to delaminate (splay out) the laminations. When reinstalling the rotor, position it very carefully in the stator bore, making sure it is level and square with the stator poles, and the gap is equal on both sides. Use shims between aligned rotor and stator poles if possible while tightening the bearing bolts. You may need to cut a window or slots into the end plates in order to remove the shims when finished. Assure that the bearing inner race set screws are securely tightened onto the shaft.
Although the original setup will work fine for this tuning, if you have the resources, it would be best for high speed/accuracy/smooth running to eliminate the v-belt and pulleys by turning the motor and generator 90° to face each other, and using a shaft coupler to drive the rotor directly from the motor shaft. (See CAD package for illustration.) The direction of rotation is not important with this generator.
An overview of the tuning and detailed exciter coil setup, with conclusion and recommendations, will follow in PART 2 in a day or so. STAY TUNED,
QEG TUNING / TECHNICAL UPDATE – PART 2 of 3 J. Robitaille 3-Jun-15
Firstly, it was brought to our attention that the last paragraph of Part 1 was a bit confusing. So to clarify, what we meant to say was, generally speaking, direct drive of the generator from the motor shaft is the best configuration for smoothness and longevity of the machine, eliminating the vibration and the maintenance associated with a v-belt and pulleys. This will also eliminate the side loading on the drive-side bearing.
However, during the tuning procedure, we have to stick with the original configuration, because the exciter coil has to be placed physically in the midst of the magnetic fields circulating around the motor and the generator, in order to take advantage of these fields to assist in starting the exciter coil resonance. So if you’re considering a direct-drive system, it will have to be implemented after the machine is tuned, and the exciter coil is removed from the circuit.
As mentioned in Part 1, the exciter coil must be connected (in series between the secondary output and the load) while you are going through the test steps to find the core steel resonant frequency (Part 1).
During the tuning procedure, the exciter coil must be resonant (at 1.3MHz) in the output (load) circuit while the machine is running. In addition, when first tuning up the exciter coil, it must be tuned in-place (while in-between the motor and the generator). This is because the proximity of the large pieces of steel in the drive motor and the generator will affect the inductance of the exciter coil. In other words, if you tune the coil on the bench away from the machine, the resonant frequency will be lower when you place it between the motor and generator to do the tuning steps.
The 2 resonances (core steel & exciter coil) work together to activate, condition, and electrify the core. When the tuning is finished, the core steel itself actually produces electricity!
Here’s how to set it all up:
As mentioned in Part 1 of this update, this procedure can be a bit challenging. The exciter coil is actually a 1.3 MHz tuned antenna, and the 20 to 50 foot external antenna wire is an extension of it, used to place a conductor out in the atmosphere, to enhance the radiant signal coming in to the coil. The antenna wire does not have to be resonant, since it is not a radio signal we’re bringing in. The antenna wire, load (with rheostat), spark gap, and ground connection (at L2) should all be connected (as shown in the schematic) while tuning up the exciter coil.
Build the exciter coil as follows:
This is an air-core coil, so it can be wound on a (non-ferrous) coil form, and the form could then be removed, or left in place, whichever you prefer. We used a piece of 4.75 inch O.D., ¼ inch thick Plexiglass/Perspex tubing, 1 inch high, and glued on two flanges that were cut off an old wire spool to make the coil form. After winding and tuning the coil, if you want to remove the coil form, remove one flange, then slide the finished coil off. You can then wrap the finished coil with fiberglass tape (same as used on the generator coils outer wrap), or electrical tape. The coil does not have to be built with extreme precision, it just needs to be resonant at 1.3MHz in the circuit, while the machine is running. The cross-section of the finished coil should be generally round, as this will yield the highest inductance.
The ideal wire to use to wind this coil, is a custom-made multi-strand, 12 gauge conductor, which will most likely have to be made up by hand. Here’s how:
Take 5 strands of the same 20 gauge Pulse Shield® inverter duty magnet wire as used on the 3100 turn primary windings, and twist it into a bundle. You should have about 750 feet of the 20 gauge Pulse Shield® wire on hand to do this. The bundle should have about the same overall diameter as a 12 gauge wire. Twist it just enough to hold the bundle together, maybe 1 twist per foot. No more than that. You can take the 750 foot spool and respool 150 feet of wire onto 5 smaller spools and put the spools on one common axle, then you can use a hand drill to twist the 5 strands together. Clamp the ends of the 5 strands together into the chuck on the drill and have an assistant or two back up with the 5 spools as you twist the strands together. The finished 12 gauge bundle should end up a little less than 150 feet long. This will be long enough to get 100 turns on the coil. You should start the tuning with 100 turns on the coil.
Here is a link to a WITTS 3kW fuelless generator replication demo video, where you can see the actual exciter coil. This working system uses the exact same exciter coil setup as the QEG: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JgxL0V_NNcg . The exciter coil is a bit difficult to see in the video, but if you look carefully, stopping and starting the video, you can see it in-between the motor and the generator. It is indeed a flat, multi-layer loop type coil, about 1 inch thick, with about the same inside diameter as a CD (4.7”), and no coil form. This one is wrapped with black electrical tape.
As mentioned earlier, the exciter coil must be physically placed in-between the motor and the generator during tuning, to compensate for the proximity of the large pieces of steel in the motor and generator.
Exciter Coil Tuning
It would be helpful for this step, to have some previous experience with tuning an inductor. There are several methods for tuning an inductor, and it can be a bit tricky, but there are several websites where these techniques are explained in detail. If you need help, you can Google “how to tune an inductor” for a better understanding. We had the best results using the following method: We made a 2-turn transmitting loop, about 5-1/4 inches in diameter, using a 2-foot long piece of #14 jacketed solid copper wire, with a 50 Ω carbon composition (non-inductive) resistor in series. This will connect to the signal generator to loosely couple the signal generator output into the exciter coil. We taped the 2-turn loop flat up against the flange on one side of the coil. The transmitting loop does not make electrical connection to the coil, it’s simply taped on to the flange adjacent to the coil windings. This is the best way we’ve found to insert the drive signal from the signal generator into the coil.
The exciter coil tuning procedure is thus: Starting with the exciter coil wound with 100 turns of the above multi-strand wire, connect the START (inside) lead to the L1 terminal coming from the generator, along with the external antenna feed line. (See schematic).
Then connect the FINISH (outside) lead from the coil to the top (ungrounded) side of the load bank. The other side of the load bank connects to the L2 terminal and your ground rod (through the rheostat). We mounted a 2-position euro barrier terminal block about 8 inches away from the coil on the generator base, and used this to connect the tank capacitor, spark gap, and antenna wire into the circuit (see attached photo “exciter coil setup.jpg”). Your initial spark gap opening should be between 0.005” [0.127mm] and 0.010” [0.254mm], and the initial value of the (mica) tank capacitor should be between about 30 and 50pF (picofarad). This capacitor should be able to withstand up to 5,000 Volts (5kV). If you can’t find a single 5,000 Volt unit, 2 or more capacitors can be connected in series to get this voltage rating. The value of this cap may have to be adjusted toward the end of the tuning, so a variable capacitor (mica compression or air variable type) could be used if it will meet the voltage requirement. The actual tuning of the coil is done by removing turns, and as you approach the resonant frequency of 1.3MHz, the coil may have enough self-capacitance to make this capacitor unnecessary. It is included only as a means of fine-tuning once you get very close to the resonant frequency, and should be applied only if needed, after you have just about the right number of turns.
Assure that everything is connected according to the schematic and the above instructions, but do not run the generator yet. We need to get the coil tuned as close to 1.3MHz as possible before running the machine.
Although the actual tuning is done with the exciter coil oriented vertically, use the coil laying flat as a measurement to set the distance between the motor and the generator. This should give you about 6 inches in-between, which is enough room to slightly reposition the coil during the final tuning if necessary, in order to optimize the magnetic fields impinging on the exciter coil windings. After the machine is completely tuned, the exciter coil setup can be disconnected and removed, and the motor can be moved closer to the generator if desired (the shortest possible v-belt length is best for continuous running). So, it’s a good idea to have the motor on an adjustable sliding base, and have a few different lengths of v-belts on hand.
Place the coil midway between the motor and generator, with vertical orientation, and set the signal generator output for square wave (the coil itself will convert the square wave to sine wave). Set the signal generator frequency at about 2MHz initially, and output level to 75%, or about 10 Volts. Place your R.F. field strength meter somewhere within about a 1-foot radius of the exciter coil, and set it near maximum sensitivity.
Slowly sweep the signal generator frequency from 2MHz downward while looking for an indication on the field strength meter. Note the frequency at which you have the highest indication on the field strength meter (lower the sensitivity or move the meter further away if your reading is off the scale). The exciter coil’s initial resonance will likely be well below 1.3 MHz with 100 turns on, so you’ll have to remove turns until you get the highest field strength reading right at 1.3MHz. If you get to the point where 1 turn (plus or minus) makes the difference between the frequency being a little too high or a little too low, this is where you would insert the fine-tuning tank capacitor. Leave the turns count where the frequency is a little too high, because adding the capacitor will lower the resonant frequency. Select (or very) the value to get it resonant dead on 1.3MHz. It should be within 0.1%, so you can be off by as much as 1,300Hz (1.3kHz). The limits would then be 1.3013MHz (+), and 1.2987MHz (-). Get it as close as you can, then disconnect the signal generator from the 2-turn transmitting loop, but leave it taped on to the side of the coil.
Final Tuning Setup
Leaving everything connected as is, it’s time to connect your fluorescent tube setup, with one end touching the core steel, and the other end grounded (see Part 1 of this update). A standard 9-inch or 12-inch long Type T5, 8-13 Watt linear (straight) fluorescent tube will work well for this testing. You can connect either or both pins on one end to the core steel, and also either or both pins on the other end to ground at your main ground connection (at the input to the 5,000 ohm, 25 Watt ground rheostat). Assure that you have means set up to record the lumen output of the fluorescent tube at each tuning step, as explained in Part 1 of this update.
PLEASE USE CAUTION DURING THE FOLLOWING STEPS! HAZARDOUS VOLTAGE AND CURRENT LEVELS ARE PRESENT ON EVERY TERMINAL IN THE SETUP WHILE THE MACHINE IS IN RESONANCE. MAINTAIN SAFE DISTANCE, AND DO NOT TOUCH ANY CONNECTIONS OR MAKE ANY ELECTRICAL ADJUSTMENTS WHILE THE MACHINE IS RUNNING. ALWAYS STOP THE MACHINE BEFORE MAKING CONNECTIONS OR ADJUSTMENTS.
The next step is to bring the machine up into resonance. Assure that a proper load is connected (between 400 – 600 Watts resistive load, such as incandescent light bulbs), and a variable resistor is connected in series with the load (minimum 300 Watt sliding or rotary rheostat, such as OHMITE® Part No. RNS150). Start with the rheostat set for the full resistance (about 150 ohms) in the load circuit, and make sure to use an insulated knob on the rheostat adjustment shaft or slider.
Set the resonance capacitors initial value around 200nF (see Part 1 of this update), and dial up the variac to bring the machine into resonance. The initial frequency (with 200nF) should be a little below 150Hz (about 2230 RPM). Assure that the resonance/output is stable. If it is not, adjust the load a bit to stabilize. In most cases, increasing the load a bit will stabilize the system. You can (slowly and smoothly) adjust the rheostat to increase the load while running (don’t touch anything but the insulated knob while adjusting). If still more load is needed, stop the machine, return the rheostat to full resistance, and add a light bulb (in parallel). Then bring the machine back up into resonance.
Once the resonance/load is stable, select an input wattage level to use as the reference standard for each of the tuning steps. In other words, adjust the variac to the same input wattage level at each test step, and keep the input level as consistent as you can across all of the test steps. We’ve found that 700 to 800 RMS Watts input, as read on your input Watt-meter, works well for this load setup.
• 1) Starting with 200nF, spin the generator up into resonance, and set the input Wattage at your selected reference input level. Record (at least) the fluorescent tube luminance value, RPM, and frequency.
• 2) Run the machine at this RPM and frequency long enough to get your readings, then shut it down and add a 1.5uF, 2,000 V (min.) capacitor in series with the initial capacitor string for the next step.
Your capacitor value increments can be smaller than 1.5uF if desired. This will make the step sizes larger at the lower RPMs. You’ll get smaller increments and more resolution with larger individual capacitor values at the lower RPM end. Also, the step sizes get smaller at the higher RPMs anyway, due to the increase in frequency. So you could switch to 1.2 or 1.0uF about half way through the steps, to try to keep the step sizes more consistent. The idea is to strike a balance between resolution and number of steps. Try not to have a lot of difference in RPM between steps, because you don’t want to step right over the peak and miss it. If you use increments of all 1.5uF, it will probably take between 20 – 25 steps to get a little above 300Hz, which should give you sufficient resolution to find the peak brightness of the lamp (see “core surface voltage test.xlsx” attached to Part 1).
• 3) Repeat steps 1) and 2) above with the next capacitor value. Each time a capacitor is added, the machine will resonate at a higher RPM/frequency.
As described in Part 1 of this update, we are looking for a peak brightness level on the fluorescent tube between about 150Hz/2250 RPM and 300Hz/4500 RPM (secondary frequency). Once found, this point will be the highest “Q” tuning / steel resonant frequency of the core. We have had our generator (in Morocco) up to 275Hz thus far, and the fluorescent tube brightness is still increasing. We temporarily stopped our testing to remove the rotor and get it professionally balanced, so we can safely sustain a higher running speed. We will resume our testing as soon as the machine is back together, and report on our progress.
Once the peak fluorescent tube brightness/highest ‘Q’ tuning/steel resonant frequency is determined from this tuning procedure, the machine must be run at this frequency for a period of time in order for the core to accumulate energy and become polarized. Since the (tuned) steel resonance and exciter coil resonance work together to electrify the core steel, we need to do the following procedure to insert the radiant energy from the atmosphere into the core.
The next steps are done with the machine running, and while running at some level of elevated speed, so –
PLEASE USE CAUTION!
In the previous “Exciter Coil Tuning” section, the exciter coil was tuned with the machine stopped, so we now have to check the (exciter coil) tuning while the machine is in operation:
• 1) Spin the generator up into resonance at the peak fluorescent tube brightness RPM/frequency that was determined in the previous “Tuning Procedure” section.
• 2) Set your R.F. Field Strength meter for maximum sensitivity, and bring it near the exciter coil setup (no closer than about 1 foot). You should see an indication on the R. F. Field Strength meter if the exciter coil is resonating/radiating. You may see a lot of R.F. in the vicinity of the exciter coil, along the antenna feed wire, and basically all over the machine. When we set this up, we had R.F. energy radiating up to 10 feet away. This is what we’re looking for.
There are a few ways to verify that the exciter coil is on-frequency while the machine is running. The simplest way would be to use a frequency counter for field use (i.e., with an antenna) that also has R.F. Field Strength indication built in, such as the OPTOELECTRONICS® Model M1 – http://www.optoelectronics.com/#!m1/c10yl . The frequency counter range must include 1.3 MHz, and the meter should have high sensitivity (10-30 mV @ 1.3 Mhz). For this step, the field strength function is less important than the frequency counter function, since you can move the meter as close as necessary to get a stable frequency reading.
The preferred method would be to use a spectrum analyzer, or an oscilloscope that has Math FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) function, such as the TEKTRONIX® Model TDS2024B – http://www.tek.com/oscilloscope/tds2022b-manual/tds2022b-and-tds2024b . FFT mode provides basic spectrum analysis capabilities that allow you to view the signal peaks within a selected spectrum of frequencies (for example, 500kHz through 2Mhz) simultaneously. You can center the scope’s frequency marker on 1.3MHz, and view whether the exciter coil signal peak is above, below, or right on the marker.
Another possible method (I have not tried this myself) would be to set up your signal generator and scope to display a 1.3MHz sine wave signal (on channel 1 of your 2 or 4-channel scope), then connect channel 2/second scope probe to the 2-turn transmitting loop described in the “Exciter Coil Tuning” section above (minus the 50 ohm resistor). Adjust the scope to display both signals simultaneously, and compare the frequency of the 2 signals. They should be the same.
If you are limited on instrumentation, a less precise method would be to simply tune a decent quality AM/Shortwave radio with digital display, such as the GRUNDIG® Model S450DLX Field Radio – www.amazon.com/Grundig-S450DLX-Deluxe-Sh…d=1433267571&sr=1-26 to 1.3MHz (1,300kHz) and listen for a quiet spot (unmodulated 1.3MHz signal). You can tune a little above and below to find the exciter coil signal if it’s not right on 1.3MHz.
If the exciter coil frequency is off (with the machine running), and you need to tweak the tuning, here’s how to do it:
The best method would be if you used the variable tank capacitor (air-variable, or mica compression types) for fine-tuning in the previous (machine not running) “Exciter Coil Tuning” step. This capacitor can be adjusted while the machine is running, using a non-metallic tuning tool or screwdriver. This is important, as a metal screwdriver or tool will affect the resonant frequency. Even the proximity of your hand to the exciter coil/capacitor will have some effect on the resonant frequency.
If your (machine running) frequency is too high, adjust the variable capacitor for more capacitance, and if too low, reduce the cap value. If you are using a fixed capacitor (or multiples in series), you’ll have to stop the machine and add or remove capacitance, then restart the machine. This may take several iterations to get right. If your original tuning did not require the capacitor (sufficient self-capacitance), depending on how much the frequency is off, you may have to put the capacitor in the circuit. The general method is thus:
• 1) If the frequency is too low without the capacitor, you may have to take an additional turn off the coil (or ½ a turn).
• 2) If the frequency is too low with the capacitor, reduce its value, or remove it.
• 3) If the frequency is too high without the capacitor, add a small value of capacitance.
• 4) I the frequency is too high with the capacitor, increase its value (if using fixed capacitors, add a small value in parallel with the existing capacitor(s). If you have more than one in series, only parallel one of them, because we have to maintain the (minimum) 5kV voltage withstand rating.
If the frequency was fairly close in the earlier (machine not running) tuning step, you should be able to get this right without having to add any turns to the coil at this point.
Procedure for Triggering the Radiant Energy Surges (into the core)
Before beginning, do a test to determine how much and how rapidly you can increase the load without causing the machine to drop out of resonance. Use the 150 ohm, 300 Watt rheostat in the load circuit to do this (not the light bulbs), and make a mental note of these limits.
• 1) The machine is running at the RPM/frequency of peak fluorescent tube brightness/highest ‘Q’ tuning (steel resonant frequency).
• 2) The exciter coil is in the (load) circuit, physically in-between the motor and generator, tuned and resonant at 1.3MHz.
• 3) No meters or instruments are connected to the machine except the input Watts monitor, and the AC and DC clamp-on ammeters on the ground wire (between ground rod/source, and rheostat).
• 4) Exciter coil spark gap opening is set very small (about 0.005 inch to start).
(Note: You may already be seeing some arcing in the spark gap and/or energy coming in through the ground wire at this point, since the machine is now tuned and operating).
• 1) If you don’t already have some periodic arcing in the spark gap, tweak it a bit with your non-metallic tuning tool or screwdriver. Try to draw an arc for 2 or 3 seconds at a time, every few minutes or so while running. Don’t let it arc any longer than that each time, or the spark gap may weld itself together, which will short the exciter coil. (Momentarily shorting the coil is not dangerous since it is in series with the load. It just won’t have any effect while shorted).
• 2) Look for surges of current on the AC and DC ammeters during and immediately after the 2-3 second arcing. Eventually you will start to see surges of energy coming in as indicated on the ammeters. You can also move the exciter coil slightly closer to the motor (not much, maybe ½ an inch at a time) or slightly closer to the generator, alternately, to try to get the surges started. The surges will be small and infrequent at first, but will get more powerful, more frequent, and longer in duration as the radiant energy “learns” your location and finds your signal (via the antenna and ground connection). Also, the 2-3 second arcs in the spark gap will get hotter as the surges increase, so you will have to periodically open the spark gap further and further as the energy builds up and accumulates in the core.
• 3) Once the energy surges start to come in, here’s how you can begin to “trigger” them to accelerate this process: Carefully monitor the ammeters on the ground line while working with the spark gap, and try to catch a surge just as it begins to occur. At this moment, rapidly increase the load using the rheostat in the load circuit. Use the limits you determined in the test at the beginning of this section, so the machine does not drop out of resonance with the sudden change in the load. This will most likely take a few tries to get it down to a repeatable process.
• 4) Do this with every surge you can manage to catch. It will get more predictable over time as you work with it, eventually allowing you to “trigger” the surges by making a rapid step change in the load.
Of course the next question would be, how long will this process take? We haven’t been through the process completely ourselves yet (we have our rotor in the machine shop being balanced), but as mentioned previously, we have been up to 275Hz so far, and the Fluorescent tube brightness is still increasing. The best estimate we have at this point, based on our own research/experiments, and (verified) instructions from WITTS, is that working with the machine maybe four hours a day, you should be able to completely tune it within 2 weeks or less. Once the tuning is complete and the core is fully ‘polarized’, you can change a few things: The exciter coil/spark gap/capacitor can be removed, and the machine can be run (permanently) on a lower harmonic of the steel resonant frequency. For example, if you’ve found your peak fluorescent tube brightness/highest “Q’ tuning/steel resonant frequency at 300Hz, you can slow the machine down to the ½ harmonic, which would be 150Hz, or about 2,250 RPM. This would be a good, permanent operating speed for the machine when it is put into continuous service.
As we’ve discussed in the classes and in our published material, once we know the final secondary running frequency (which will likely not be 50 or 60Hz), it will be a relatively simple matter to apply electronics to convert the power output to standard line voltages and frequencies. In fact, we have several circuits, some electronic, some electromagnetic, that are at the ready for when we complete this tuning process. Most of these circuits were donated by our excellent supporters, and a couple were originated by us.
This update is based on the results of our own latest research and experiments, and is meant to show our supporters and all those who have embraced the project, that we have a clear way forward toward producing over-unity with the machine. It is hoped that this will encourage all who have invested time and money in this project to continue on with tuning and finalizing the generator.
We also really want to encourage the groups who are designing, building and working with the Mini-QEGs, that the scaled-down versions of the machine are the ideal development platform for doing the procedures in this update. Using these instructions, you should be able to more quickly determine the steel resonant frequency of your cores, since the lower rotor mass of the smaller machines would make it easier to run through a wide range of RPMs, and the smaller components will make it more convenient for testing and making changes. Of course, all the numbers will be different, but the concept is the same. This could potentially shorten development time, and will certainly be very interesting and rewarding work!
In conclusion, I (James) feel that I need to help everyone involved in our project to fully understand the underlying principles of how this machine works as I understand it, and how we are on our way to producing a self-sustaining generator with output power well in excess of the input power. I started writing it to include in this part, but it’s going too long. This part is already late, and we need to get this information out to you ASAP. For this reason, I will be posting a Part 3 to this update in about a week. Part 3 will be titled: QEG Theory of Operation.
We sincerely thank you all for your continued support! Nothing is more important to us than supporting our people, as you have supported us!
James & the FTW/QEG Team
(ADMIN NOTE: Engineers working on this project are advised to download the original document written by James Robitaille )
QEG Tuning & Technical Update – Part 3, and QEG Theory of Operation
J. Robitaille30-Jun-2015The key to obtainingoverunity in the QEG, is the vibration of the core steel. The machine must be tuned at the resonant frequency of the core steel to make this work, and the tuning instructions are in Part 1 & 2 of this update.Between the time we released update 2 and the release of this part (Part 3), we were successful in determining the resonant frequency of our core here in Morocco. If your steel type is the same as ours (M19 at 0.025″ lamination thickness), you’ll need to be able to run the machine up to slightly over 4,500 RPM for the tuning. So, first you have to make sure your rotor setup will handle that speed. How to do that is also covered in Part 1 of this update.
If you havetypeM19, you’ll find the steel resonant frequency very close to 300Hz (about 4,500 RPM). The resonance capacitors value to resonate at this speed/frequency will be between about 50and55nF (0.050 and 0.055uF). When you’re running at the steel’s resonant frequency, it causes the steel to vibrate (resonate), and 3 things happen:1) The higher the primary voltage, the more power the machine will put out. When you’re running at the core steel’s resonant frequency, the vibration causes the primary voltage to go much higher. Double, or more. This is (partially) where the overunity comes from. However, at this point care must be taken that the primary high-voltage does not exceed20kVp (20,000 volts peak). Make sure you have your scope or meter set to read peak voltage for this tuning, because when working with insulation systems, the full excursion of the voltage waveform must be included in the measurement (the insulation system is rated to withstand the voltage peaks). As you approach the steel resonant frequency, the protection gap will most likely fire off, as the high voltage level will be increasing. The high-voltage level can be controlled to some extent by reducing the load, but if your voltage is still too high with minimum loading, a variable resistor can be added in series between one end of the primary winding and the resonance capacitors. (The resistor should be something like 0-1,500 Ohms @ 25 Watts). Take care not to exceed20kVp, or you could short out the primary windings (although the proper setting of the protection gap should prevent this). This is a bit tricky because you want to run it with the voltage as high as possible (as close to20kVp as you can get without going over). The protection gap should be set so that it will pass20kVp, but no more.2) The vibration changes the microcrystalline structure of the core steel. It becomes ‘conditioned’. What this means is that when you’ve completed the tuning procedure, you’ve actually modified the characteristics of the core steel so that it ‘wants to’ resonate easily. This is further explained in the ‘Theory of Operation’ below.3) While the core is vibrating at it’s resonant frequency, it is in the state where it can take on the radiant energy that’s inserted through the exciter coil and ground connection (further explained in the ‘Theory of Operation’ below). It has to be vibrating/resonating for this to work. This is where the rest of the overunity comes from. Remember, Mr. Tesla said “Potential, Vibration, and Frequency”!
Once the tuning is completed, the core will be conditioned such that the rotor can be slowed down to the 1/2 harmonic, and still excite the steel fully into resonance. The 1/2 harmonic would be about 150Hz (secondary frequency). This is a good permanent running speed (about 2,230 RPM). The resonance capacitors value at 150Hz will be about 200nF (0.2uF). The time it takes to sufficiently condition the core (running at 300Hz) will vary, but you can tell when you’re done by periodically comparing the high voltage levels (or fluorescent tube brightness levels) with the machine running at 300Hz, and then at 150Hz. The voltage (or brightness) levels should be similar at both speeds if the steel is fully resonating. You’ll be finished when you see no further voltage increase (in the high voltage level at 150Hz), after checking between the 2 speeds a few times.
Also, it has come to our attention that the “Procedure for Triggering the Radiant Energy Surges (into the core)” in Part 2 of this update, does not specify that the procedure is to be done at the lower, ½ harmonic speed (150Hz/2,230 RPM). This is because 300Hz is beyond the frequency range where efficient power transfer occurs between primary and secondary, and there would not be enough power to drive the exciter coil. The generator must be fully loaded, running at 150Hz during this procedure. We apologize that this was not specified in Part 2.
Theory of Operation – Here is how we understand the system to work:
After almost 2 years of research and development, we have learned that there are 2 important unique features of this generator that will allow us to reach overunity:
1) The machine can be thought of as a self-powered toroidal transformer. Self-powered meaning that it generates its own primary power via mechanically pumped parametric resonance (1st resonance). As the rotor approaches, aligns, and leaves a given pair of stator poles, a magnetic shunt is formed which alters the effective shape of the core as well as the magnetic path length. This produces the desired parametric change in both Reluctance and Inductance which is “parametric pumping”. Through transformer action, this provides the basic power output (up to 800 Watts peak for 1000 Watts input). While the system has very low Lenz effect and is comparatively efficient, at this point, it’s not producing over unity output, and shouldn’t be expected to produce more output than input until the tuning steps are done as described in Part 1 & Part 2 of this update.
2) The other ‘secret’ feature is that the machine also generates its own radiant energy. This is different from conventional electromagnetic transformers. Normal transformers are governed by the flux coupling term, and are based upon constant reluctance and inductance values with time variant current (and voltages). If we look at the QEG’s primary voltage and current signals on the scope, both waveforms are clear, sharp and well-defined. This is also true if we look at the secondary voltage signal. However, when viewing the secondary current waveform, it looks noisy and full of spikes, as though there is something wrong with the scope or probe, or a bad connection, but there’s nothing wrong with the setup. What we’re seeing are radiant spikes. If we zoom out the scope, we see the classic sharp, narrow (less than 1uS width) spikes that characterize radiant energy.
As the magnetic shunts described above form and subsequently disconnect, magnetic snap-back occurs as the magnetic flux loops are broken and forced to reform within the cyclically altering core geometry. The radiant energy effects occur in the secondary output current when magnetic snap-back occurs. This effect is what we use to ‘tap in’ to the energy present in the medium all around us, using the exciter coil, antenna, and ground connection.
Unique Machine Features Leading to Over-Unity
1) Self-Generated Input Power via Parametric Resonance
2) Very Low Lenz Effect By-Design
3) Generates Radiant Spikes via Magnetic Snap-Back
Core Steel Resonance/Vibration
Now if we focus on the sequence of events during the tuning process, we see that as you accumulate run time operating at the core steel’s resonant frequency, the steel becomes ‘conditioned’ or ‘predisposed’ to vibrate at that frequency much more easily than in its initial (new) condition. This is important because after tuning, we have to slow the machine down to the 1/2 harmonic (150Hz/2,230 RPM), in order to be in the frequency range where efficient power transfer occurs between primary and secondary. Due to the steel type and geometry, power transfer/transformer action is much more efficient at lower speeds/frequencies, such as 150Hz.
The core develops sufficient energy to excite the steel into resonance running at the fundamental frequency (300Hz). However, when the machine is slowed down to the ½ harmonic (150Hz) the exciting energy is also reduced (in half, generally). This is why the core steel must be pre-‘conditioned’, so that it can still be driven fully into resonance from the lower exciting energy level. The lower energy level at the 150Hz harmonic is not sufficient to drive the core steel into resonance in its initial (new) condition.
Radiant Energy Insertion via Exciter Coil, Antenna, and Ground Connection
The exciter coil is actually a 1.3 MHz tuned antenna, and the 20 to 50 foot external antenna wire is an extension of it, used to place a conductor out in the atmosphere, to ‘guide’ the radiant signal in to the coil. The antenna wire does not have to be resonant, since it is not a radio signal we’re bringing in.
With the generator running in resonance at the core steel’s ½ harmonic resonant frequency (150Hz), and the exciter coil connected in the secondary (load) circuit, tuned and resonant at 1.3 MHz, what we have is a radiant energy transceiver. If you have some knowledge of the characteristics of radiant energy (radiant electricity, longitudinal electricity, ‘cold’ electricity), you’ll recall that it is identified by sharp, narrow, DC impulses (spikes), with duration of 1.0uS (1 microsecond) or less. As noted above, the machine generates these impulses on it’s own in the secondary circuit, via magnetic snap-back. Through the resonance of the exciter coil, these impulses are radiated or ‘broadcast’ into the ether where they ‘connect’ with the radiant energy resident there. Here is the mechanism:
The significance of the 1.3MHz tuning is that this is the ‘frequency’ or duration of the radiant impulses. i.e., 1.0 MHz= 1.0 uS (microsecond), and 1.3MHz= 0.77uS. It is known from Mr. Tesla’s work that different effects are realized with radiant impulses of varying duration;
“Tesla found that impulse duration alone defined the effect of each succinct spectrum. These effects were completely distinctive, endowed with strange additional qualities never purely experienced in Nature. Trains of impulses, each exceeding 0.1 millisecond duration, produced pain and mechanical pressures. In this radiant field, objects visibly vibrated and even moved as the force field drove them along. Thin wires, exposed to sudden bursts of the radiant field, exploded into vapor. Pain and physical movements ceased when impulses of 100 microseconds or less were produced. With impulses of 1.0 microsecond duration, strong physiological heat was sensed. Further decreases in impulse brought spontaneous illuminations capable of filling rooms and vacuum globes with white light”.
– excerpted from John Bedini.net
The exciter coil can also be thought of as a sort of notch or band pass filter since it is tuned to pass radiant impulses of a particular duration less than 1uS (0.77uS). Although the radiant energy can be tapped at other frequencies, we were told by WITTS that the 1.3MHz tuning was the easiest.
Due to the x-coil’s resonance at the same frequency as the radiant impulses, it acts as a bidirectional ‘open gate’ to the energy in the surrounding ether. With the x-coil tuned and resonant, the machine’s self-generated radiant impulses are now able to radiate into the surrounding space, and along the external antenna wire, where they are ‘found’ by, and ‘connect’ to the energy in the ether. The method for bringing the radiant energy surges into the machine is detailed in Part 2 of this update.
It has been shown that radiant energy, or ‘longitudinal electricity’, travels through the medium around a conductor, rather than through the conductor itself, however, it does follow the conductor, therefore it is still subject to the effects of inductance, and will produce power in transformers. Since the radiant surges are inserted into the secondary windings (via x-coil resonance), the effect is that of having a 3rd isolated power source (Parametric Resonance is 1st, and Core Steel Resonance is 2nd).
After the core is conditioned at 300Hz, we are now able to drive the steel into resonance running at the slower ½ harmonic (150Hz/2,230 RPM). The steel resonance is also key for the operation of the x-coil;
When performing the tuning process, the radiant surges are inserted into the secondary windings, where they are used to electrify or ‘charge’ the core. In order to ‘break loose’ the energy from the medium (the secondary windings), there must be a disturbance or perturbation of the medium. This ‘disturbance’ is provided by the vibration of the resonating core steel. The effect is that the energy is ‘stripped off’ or ‘shaken loose’ from the windings, and goes into the core steel, causing it to become electrified or ‘charged’. This causes a further physical modification of the core steel, in addition to the ‘conditioning’ discussed above.
Since the radiant energy impulses/surges are DC, we have to provide a return path to complete the circuit with the energy in the ether. This is why a heavy-duty ground connection is necessary during the tuning. After tuning is completed, the exciter coil, spark gap, tank capacitor (if used), and grounding network can be removed, because the core steel retains these new physical characteristics.
The effect of the radiant energy circulating in the system is that we have now ‘activated’ the core, which provides an overall multiplication or ‘amplification’ of the generator’s output power, since the steel in the stator is common to both the primary and secondary windings. This is the remaining source of over-unity in the QEG.
The technique of resonating the core steel is not unknown, and has recently begun to find its way into mainstream engineering. One of the major companies involved is Baldor Motors in Australia.
This concludes the “QEG Tuning and Technical Update, Parts 1, 2, and 3”, and the “QEG Theory of Operation”.
Those who have been following our progress with the QEG for any length of time will know that from the initial launch to now, all of the funding for the project has come from you, the people, through several crowdfunding campaigns, and donations, and we wish to express our profound gratitude to all who have contributed. Use of workspaces, test equipment and instrumentation that we employed at the various builds was also donated. We have a few older pieces of equipment, but no lab, or even access to one. In spite of this, we feel we’ve been able to accomplish amazing things! We have managed to build 4 machines ourselves and assist with a 5th, while bringing the machine through development, documentation, and publishing, and very nearly to completion.
In successfully determining the core steel’s resonant frequency, we have cleared the last major hurdle to making the machine self-sustain while providing additional power.
As Always, Many Thanks and Blessings to all our supporters!
James and the FTW/QEG Team